Introduction: Air pollution induced by human activities is one of major challenges faced by Iran, as well as the world . The AirQ model was used to evaluate the cardiovascular and respiratory diseases attributable to the exposure to suspended particles of less than 10 µm in Urmia city of West Azerbaijan Province, Iran, in 2015.
Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was conducted in Urmia in 2015. The hourly data of the PM10 (particle matter up to 10 µm) pollutant were extracted as the raw material from the Environmental Health Center. The health effects of suspended particles of less than 10 µm were estimated by statistical analysis using the World Health Organization’s AirQ model.
Results: According to the results concentration of PM10 was higher in the cold seasons compared with the warm seasons. The annual average of PM10 concentration was 3.9 times higher than that prescribed as per the standards of clean air in Iran. In addition, the cumulative numbers of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in the city of Urmia in the median estimate were 287 and 744 cases, respectively.
Conclusion: As a consequently, air pollution in the Urmia city has contributed significantly to the rate of hospitalizations and deaths of people in 2015. Therefore, authorities should make appropriate, sustainable, and applicable strategies based on comprehensive research to control the Urmia air pollution crisis.
Downs SH, Schindler C, Liu L-JS, Keidel D, Bayer-Oglesby L, Brutsche MH, et al. Reduced exposure to PM10 and attenuated age-related decline in lung function. New England Journal of Medicine. 2007;357(23):2338-47.
Geravandi S, Goudarzi G, Salmanzadehs, Beyt Ms, Mohammadi M, Naiemabadi A. Determination of Cardiovascular Deaths and Hospital Admissions Due to Respiratory Disease for Particulate Matter Less than 10 Microns Exposure in Ahvaz City during 2010-2012. 2016.
Mokhtari M, Miri M, Mohammadi A, Khorsandi H, Hajizadeh Y, Abdolahnejad A. Assessment of Air Quality Index and Health Impact of PM10, PM2. 5 and SO2 in Yazd, Iran. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 2015;25(131):14-23.
Kermani M, Gholami M, Aghaei M, Bahrami AF, Shahsavani A, Karimzadeh S, et al. Quantification of Mortality and Hospital Admission Due to Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disease Attributed to PM10 in 7 Metropolitans of Iran during 2011-2012. 2016.
Fattore E, Paiano V, Borgini A, Tittarelli A, Bertoldi M, Crosignani P, et al. Human health risk in relation to air quality in two municipalities in an industrialized area of Northern Italy. Environmental research. 2011;111(8):1321-7.
Goudarzi GR, Geravandi S, Salmanzadeh S, Mohammadi MJ. An estimationof respiratory deaths and COPD related to SO2 pollutant in Tabriz, northwest of Iran (2011). Razi Journal of Medical Sciences. 2015;22(131):44-50.
Su TC, Chen SY, Chan CC. Progress of ambient air pollution and cardiovascular disease research in Asia. Progress in cardiovascular diseases. 2011;53(5):369-78.
Davidson CI, Phalen RF, Solomon PA. Airborne particulate matter and human health: A review. Aerosol Science and Technology. 2005;39(8):737-49.
Kassomenos P, Dimitriou K, Paschalidou A. Human health damage caused by particulate matter PM10 and ozone in urban environments: the case of Athens, Greece. Environmental monitoring and assessment. 2013;185(8):6933-42.
Orru H, Maasikmets M, Lai T, Tamm T, Kaasik M, Kimmel V, et al. Health impacts ofparticulate matter in five major Estonian towns: main sources of exposure and local differences. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health. 2011;4(3-4):247-58.
Atkinson RW, Ross Anderson H, Sunyer J, Ayres J, Baccini M, Vonk JM, et al. Acute effects of particulate air pollution on respiratory admissions: results from APHEA 2 project. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2001;164(10):1860-6.
Peters A. Particulate matter and heart disease: evidence from epidemiological studies. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 2005;207(2):477-82.
Habeebullah T. Health impacts of PM10 using AirQ2. 2.3 model in Makkah. Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences. 2013;9:259.
Naddafi K, Hassanvand MS, Yunesian M, Momeniha F, Nabizadeh R, Faridi S, etal. Health impact assessment of air pollution in megacity of Tehran, Iran. Iranian journal of environmental health science & engineering. 2012;9(1):28.
Tominz R, Mazzoleni B, Daris F. [Estimate of potential health benefits of the reduction of air pollution with PM10 in Trieste, Italy]. Epidemiologia e prevenzione. 2005;29(3-4):149-55.
Arfaeinia H, Kermani M, Aghaei M, Asl FB, Karimzadeh S. Comparative investigation of health quality of air in Tehran, Isfahan and Shiraz metropolises in 2011-2012. Journal of Health in the Field. 2017;1(4).
Kermani M, Bahrami Asl F, Aghaei M, Arfaeinia H, Karimzadeh S, Shahsavani A. Comparative investigation of air quality index (AQI) for six industrial cities of Iran. Urmia Medical Journal. 2014;25(9):810-9.
Geravandi S, Zalaghi E, Goudarzi G, Mohammadi MJ, Babaei AA, Yari AR, et al. Exposure To Particulate Matter of Less Than 10 Microns And Its Effect on Respiratory and Cardiovascular Diseases In Isfahan, Iran In 2013. 2016.
Goudarzi G, Geravandi S, Foruozandeh H, Babaei AA, Alavi N, Niri MV, et al. Cardiovascular and respiratory mortality attributed to ground-level ozone in Ahvaz, Iran. Environmental monitoring and assessment. 2015;187(8):487.
Cohen AJ, Ross Anderson H, Ostro B, Pandey KD, Krzyzanowski M, Kunzli N, et al. The global burden of disease due to outdoor air pollution. Journal of toxicology and environmental health Part A. 2005;68(13-14):1301-7.
Katsouyanni K, Touloumi G, Samoli E, Gryparis A, Le Tertre A, Monopolis Y, et al. Confounding and effect modification in the short-term effects of ambient particles on total mortality: results from 29 European cities within the APHEA2 project. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass). 2001; 12(5):521-31.
Samet JM, Zeger SL, Dominici F, Curriero F, Coursac I, Dockery DW, et al. The National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study. Part II: Morbidity and mortality from air pollution in the United States. Research report (Health Effects Institute). 2000; 94(Pt 2):5-70; discussion 1-9.
Ghozikali MG, Mosaferi M, Safari GH, Jaafari J. Effect of exposure to O3, NO2, and SO2 on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospitalizations in Tabriz, Iran. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2015;22(4):2817-23.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.