Effectiveness of Reality Therapy in Improving the Psychological Well-being in People with Leukemia
Cancer is now the most important health concern endangering the patients' physical, mental and social health. Cancer has several types among which prostate and breast cancers are the most common tumors in men and women respectively, and the lung and colon are more prevalent in both genders, but leukemia is more common in children. The present research aimed to determine the effectiveness of reality therapy in improving the psychological well-being in people with leukemia. The present study utilized a quasi-experimental approach which is among the most complex and scientific research methods after the experimental method and manipulates and implements at least an independent variable called the conscious test variable. These projects examine cognitive and behavioral changes in subjects by pre-test- post-test due to the precise control of experimental conditions by controlling the independent variable through questionnaires. Diagram of this project is illustrated in the figure. The statistical population consisted of all people with leukemia in hospitals and private offices of blood and oncology in Yazd during 2013-2014. Convenience sampling was done on those referring to an oncology office for the cancer treatment. Leukemia patients, who knew about their illness, were selected as samples and involved in reality therapy sessions considering inclusion and exclusion criteria: The sample size included 30 leukemia people who were randomly divided into two groups (experimental and control). Subjects of the first group were randomly put into the reality therapy group who were known as the experimental group; and the second group did not receive any psychiatric treatment and were known as the control group. In the past decade, Ryff and Keyes suggested the psychological well-being model that was widely studied by researchers. The treatment research plan was individually conducted for 6 weekly 1-hour sessions; and Ryff's questionnaire was recompleted at the end of the sixth session. Shapiro-Wilk test, Levene's test, one-way analysis of covariance, and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) were used to analyze research data in four hypotheses after investigating the equality of variance, and the equality of regression slopes. During the reality therapy sessions, participants' self-knowledge was increased (self-acceptance was also increased in participants, so it was consistent with current studies) as members discuss and contemplate themselves and share their perceptions. This self-knowledge is the basis for making more constructive decisions, more functional programs, changing their feelings and thoughts, improving life for remaining years, and more purposeful life.
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