Background: Extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by tissue decellularization processes as a biological scaffold due to its unique properties compared to other scaffolds for migration and implantation of stem cells have been used successfully in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in the last years. The objective of this manuscript was to provide an overview of the chemical decellularization methods, evaluation of decellularized ECM and the potential effect of the chemical decellularization agents on the biochemical composition.
Methods: We searched in Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct. The literature search was done by using the following keywords: “ECM, biologic scaffold, decellularization, chemical methods, tissue engineering.” We selected articles have been published from 2000 to 2016, and 15 full texts and 97 abstracts were reviewed.
Results:Employing an optimization method to minimize damage to the ECM ultrastructure as for a result of the lack of reduction in mechanical properties and also the preservation of essential proteins such as laminin, fibronectin, Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), growth factor is required. Various methods include chemical, physical and enzymatic technics were studied. However, on each of these methods can have undesirable effects on ECM.
Conclusion: It is suggested that instead of the Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) which have high strength degradation, we can use zwitterionic separately or in combination with SDS. Tributyl phosphate (TBP) due to its unique properties can be used in decellularization process.
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