Chemical Decellularization Methods and Its Effects on Extracellular Matrix
Background: Extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by tissue decellularization processes as a biological scaffold due to its unique properties compared to other scaffolds for migration and implantation of stem cells have been used successfully in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in the last years. The objective of this manuscript was to provide an overview of the chemical decellularization methods, evaluation of decellularized ECM and the potential effect of the chemical decellularization agents on the biochemical composition.
Methods: We searched in Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct. The literature search was done by using the following keywords: “ECM, biologic scaffold, decellularization, chemical methods, tissue engineering.” We selected articles have been published from 2000 to 2016, and 15 full texts and 97 abstracts were reviewed.
Results:Employing an optimization method to minimize damage to the ECM ultrastructure as for a result of the lack of reduction in mechanical properties and also the preservation of essential proteins such as laminin, fibronectin, Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), growth factor is required. Various methods include chemical, physical and enzymatic technics were studied. However, on each of these methods can have undesirable effects on ECM.
Conclusion: It is suggested that instead of the Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) which have high strength degradation, we can use zwitterionic separately or in combination with SDS. Tributyl phosphate (TBP) due to its unique properties can be used in decellularization process.
Crapo PM, Gilbert TW, Badylak SF. An overview of tissue and whole organ decellularization processes. Biomaterials. 2011;32(12):3233-43.
Gilbert TW. Strategies for tissue and organ decellularization. Journal of cellular biochemistry. 2012;113(7):2217-22.
Gilbert TW, Sellaro TL, Badylak SF. Decellularization of tissues and organs. Biomaterials. 2006;27(19):3675-83.
Hrebikova H, Diaz D, Mokry J. Chemical decellularization: a promising approach for preparation of extracellular matrix. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2015;159(1):12-7.
Patnaik SS, Wang B, Weed B, Wertheim JA, Liao J. Decellularized scaffolds: concepts, methodologies, and applications in cardiac tissue engineering and whole-organ regeneration. Tissue Regeneration: Where Nanostructure Meets Biology Singapore: World Scientific. 2014:77-124.
Shafiq M, Jung Y, Kim SH. Insight on stem cell preconditioning and instructive biomaterials to enhance cell adhesion, retention, and engraftment for tissue repair. Biomaterials. 2016;90:85-115.
Song JJ, Ott HC. Organ engineering based on decellularized matrix scaffolds. Trends in molecular medicine. 2011;17(8):424-32.
Ott HC, Matthiesen TS, Goh S-K, Black LD, Kren SM, Netoff TI, et al. Perfusion-decellularized matrix: using nature's platform to engineer a bioartificial heart. Nature medicine. 2008;14(2):213-21.
Wainwright JM, Czajka CA, Patel UB, Freytes DO, Tobita K, Gilbert TW, et al. Preparation of cardiac extracellular matrix from an intact porcine heart. Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods. 2009;16(3):525-32.
Costa KD. Decellularized Scaffold Hydrogel Materials for MI Treatment. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2016;67(9).
Akhyari P, Aubin H, Gwanmesia P, Barth M, Hoffmann S, Huelsmann J, et al. The quest for an optimized protocol for whole-heart decellularization: a comparison of three popular and a novel decellularization technique and their diverse effects on crucial extracellular matrix qualities. Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods. 2011;17(9):915-26.
Hodonsky C, Mundada L, Wang S, Witt R, Raff G, Kaushal S, et al. Effects of scaffold material used in cardiovascular surgery on mesenchymal stem cells and cardiac progenitor cells. The Annals of thoracic surgery. 2015;99(2):605-11.
Gui L, Niklason LE. Vascular tissue engineering: building perfusable vasculature for implantation. Current opinion in chemical engineering. 2014;3:68-74.
Parker DM, Armstrong PJ, Frizzi JD, North JH. Porcine dermal collagen (Permacol) for abdominal wall reconstruction. Current surgery. 2006;63(4):255-8.
Hudson TW, Liu SY, Schmidt CE. Engineering an improved acellular nerve graft via optimized chemical processing. Tissue engineering. 2004;10(9-10):1346-58.
Borschel GH, Dennis RG, Kuzon Jr WM. Contractile skeletal muscle tissue-engineered on an acellular scaffold. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. 2004;113(2):595-602.
Docheva D, Müller SA, Majewski M, Evans CH. Biologics for tendon repair. Advanced drug delivery reviews. 2015;84:222-39.
Lantz GC, Badylak SF, Coffey AC, Geddes LA, Blevins WE. Small intestinal submucosa as a small-diameter arterial graft in the dog. Journal of Investigative Surgery. 1990;3(3):217-27.
Chai WL, Moharamzadeh K, Brook IM, Emanuelsson L, Palmquist A, van Noort R. Development of a novel model for the investigation of implant-soft tissue interface. Journal of periodontology. 2010;81(8):1187-95.
Moharamzadeh K, Brook I, Van Noort R, Scutt A, Thornhill M. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa: a review of the scientific literature. Journal of Dental Research. 2007;86(2):115-24.
Mohammadi M, Shokrgozar MA, Mofid R. Culture of human gingival fibroblasts on a biodegradable scaffold and evaluation of its effect on attached gingiva: A randomized, controlled pilot study. Journal of periodontology. 2007;78(10):1897-903.
Tabatabaei F, Motamedian S, Gholipour F, Khosraviani K, Khojasteh A. Craniomaxillofacial bone engineering by scaffolds loaded with stem cells: A systematic review. J Dent Sch. 2012;30(2):115-31.
Lee MK, DeConde AS, Lee M, Walthers CM, Sepahdari AR, Elashoff D, et al. Biomimetic scaffolds facilitate healing of critical-sized segmental mandibular defects. American journal of otolaryngology. 2015;36(1):1-6.
Motamedian FSTSR, Khosraviani FGK, Khojasteh A. Craniomaxillofacial Bone Engineering by Scaffolds Loaded with Stem Cells: A Systematic Review. Journal Dental School. 2012:116.
Rahpeyma A, Khajehahmadi S, Khalife HH. Decellularized human Schneiderian membrane: Electron microscopic study as a bioscaffold and preliminary cell seeding. Pathology-Research and Practice. 2014;210(12):965-70.
Lin P, Chan WC, Badylak SF, Bhatia SN. Assessing porcine liver-derived biomatrix for hepatic tissue engineering. Tissue engineering. 2004;10(7-8):1046-53.
Wallis JM, Borg ZD, Daly AB, Deng B, Ballif BA, Allen GB, et al. Comparative assessment of detergent-based protocols for mouse lung de-cellularization and re-cellularization. Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods. 2012;18(6):420-32.
Badylak SF, Freytes DO, Gilbert TW. Extracellular matrix as a biological scaffold material: structure and function. Acta biomaterialia. 2009;5(1):1-13.
Remlinger NT, Czajka CA, Juhas ME, Vorp DA, Stolz DB, Badylak SF, et al. Hydrated xenogeneic decellularized tracheal matrix as a scaffold for tracheal reconstruction. Biomaterials. 2010;31(13):3520-6.
Dong X, Wei X, Yi W, Gu C, Kang X, Liu Y, et al. RGD-modified acellular bovine pericardium as a bioprosthetic scaffold for tissue engineering. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine. 2009;20(11):2327-36.
Keane TJ, Londono R, Turner NJ, Badylak SF. Consequences of ineffective decellularization of biologic scaffolds on the host response. Biomaterials. 2012;33(6):1771-81.
Brown B, Lindberg K, Reing J, Stolz DB, Badylak SF. The basement membrane component of biologic scaffolds derived from extracellular matrix. Tissue engineering. 2006;12(3):519-26.
Hodde J, Record R, Tullius R, Badylak S. Fibronectin peptides mediate HMEC adhesion to porcine-derived extracellular matrix. Biomaterials. 2002;23(8):1841-8.
Hodde J, Record R, Liang H, Badylak S. Vascular endothelial growth factor in porcine-derived extracellular matrix. Endothelium. 2001;8(1):11-24.
Voytik‐Harbin SL, Brightman AO, Kraine MR, Waisner B, Badylak SF. Identification of extractable growth factors from small intestinal submucosa. Journal of cellular biochemistry. 1997;67(4):478-91.
Freytes DO, Badylak SF, Webster TJ, Geddes LA, Rundell AE. Biaxial strength of multilaminated extracellular matrix scaffolds. Biomaterials. 2004;25(12):2353-61.
Hodde J, Hiles M. Virus safety of a porcine‐derived medical device: Evaluation of a viral inactivation method. Biotechnology and bioengineering. 2002;79(2):211-6.
Pruss A, Kao M, Kiesewetter H, Von Versen R, Pauli G. Virus safety of avital bone tissue transplants: evaluation of sterilization steps of spongiosa cuboids using a peracetic acid–methanol mixture. Biologicals. 1999;27(3):195-201.
Badylak SF, Record R, Lindberg K, Hodde J, Park K. Small intestinal submucosa: a substrate for in vitro cell growth. Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition. 1998;9(8):863-78.
Badylak SF, Tullius R, Kokini K, Shelbourne KD, Klootwyk T, Voytik SL, et al. The use of xenogeneic small intestinal submucosa as a biomaterial for Achille's tendon repair in a dog model. Journal of biomedical materials research. 1995;29(8):977-85.
Hodde JP, Badylak SF, Brightman AO, Voytik-Harbin SL. Glycosaminoglycan content of small intestinal submucosa: a bioscaffold for tissue replacement. Tissue engineering. 1996;2(3):209-17.
Prasertsung I, Kanokpanont S, Bunaprasert T, Thanakit V, Damrongsakkul S. Development of acellular dermis from porcine skin using periodic pressurized technique. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials. 2008;85(1):210-9.
Reing JE, Brown BN, Daly KA, Freund JM, Gilbert TW, Hsiong SX, et al. The effects of processing methods upon mechanical and biologic properties of porcine dermal extracellular matrix scaffolds. Biomaterials. 2010;31(33):8626-33.
Gorschewsky O, Puetz A, Riechert K, Klakow A, Becker R. Quantitative analysis of biochemical characteristics of bone-patellar tendon-bone allografts. Bio-medical materials and engineering. 2005;15(6):403-11.
Vyavahare N, Hirsch D, Lerner E, Baskin JZ, Schoen FJ, Bianco R, et al. Prevention of bioprosthetic heart valve calcification by ethanol preincubation efficacy and mechanisms. Circulation. 1997;95(2):479-88.
Goissis G, Suzigan S, Parreira DR, Maniglia JV, Braile DM, Raymundo S. Preparation and Characterization of Collagen‐Elastin Matrices From Blood Vessels Intended as Small Diameter Vascular Grafts. Artificial organs. 2000;24(3):217-23.
Woods T, Gratzer PF. Effectiveness of three extraction techniques in the development of a decellularized bone–anterior cruciate ligament–bone graft. Biomaterials. 2005;26(35):7339-49.
Dahl SL, Koh J, Prabhakar V, Niklason LE. Decellularized native and engineered arterial scaffolds for transplantation. Cell transplantation. 2003;12(6):659-66.
Cox B, Emili A. Tissue subcellular fractionation and protein extraction for use in mass-spectrometry-based proteomics. Nature protocols. 2006;1(4):1872-8.
Xu CC, Chan RW, Tirunagari N. A biodegradable, acellular xenogeneic scaffold for regeneration of the vocal fold lamina propria. Tissue engineering. 2007;13(3):551-66.
Rosario DJ, Reilly GC, Ali Salah E, Glover M, Bullock AJ, MacNeil S. Decellularization and sterilization of porcine urinary bladder matrix for tissue engineering in the lower urinary tract. 2008.
Ozeki M, Narita Y, Kagami H, Ohmiya N, Itoh A, Hirooka Y, et al. Evaluation of decellularized esophagus as a scaffold for cultured esophageal epithelial cells. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A. 2006;79(4):771-8.
Zhou J, Fritze O, Schleicher M, Wendel H-P, Schenke-Layland K, Harasztosi C, et al. Impact of heart valve decellularization on 3-D ultrastructure, immunogenicity and thrombogenicity. Biomaterials. 2010;31(9):2549-54.
Flynn L. The use of decellularized adipose tissue to provide an inductive microenvironment for the adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells. Biomaterials. 2010;31(17):4715-24.
Brown BN, Freund JM, Han L, Rubin JP, Reing JE, Jeffries EM, et al. Comparison of three methods for the derivation of a biologic scaffold composed of adipose tissue extracellular matrix. Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods. 2011;17(4):411-21.
Levy RJ, Vyavahare N, Ogle M, Ashworth P, Bianco R, Schoen FJ. Inhibition of cusp and aortic wall calcification in ethanol-and aluminum-treated bioprosthetic heart valves in sheep: background, mechanisms, and synergism. The Journal of heart valve disease. 2003;12(2):209-16; discussion 16.
Gorschewsky O, Klakow A, Riechert K, Pitzl M, Becker R. Clinical comparison of the tutoplast allograft and autologous patellar tendon (bone–patellar tendon–bone) for the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament 2-and 6-year results. The American journal of sports medicine. 2005;33(8):1202-9.
Wicha MS, Lowrie G, Kohn E, Bagavandoss P, Mahn T. Extracellular matrix promotes mammary epithelial growth and differentiation in vitro. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1982;79(10):3213-7.
Lumpkins SB, Pierre N, McFetridge PS. A mechanical evaluation of three decellularization methods in the design of a xenogeneic scaffold for tissue engineering the temporomandibular joint disc. Acta Biomaterialia. 2008;4(4):808-16.
Montoya CV, McFetridge PS. Preparation of ex vivo–based biomaterials using convective flow decellularization. Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods. 2009;15(2):191-200.
Clark JN, Ogle MF, Ashworth P, Bianco RW, Levy RJ. Prevention of calcification of bioprosthetic heart valve cusp and aortic wall with ethanol and aluminum chloride. The Annals of thoracic surgery. 2005;79(3):897-904.
Luche S, Santoni V, Rabilloud T. Evaluation of nonionic and zwitterionic detergents as membrane protein solubilizers in two‐dimensional electrophoresis. Proteomics. 2003;3(3):249-53.
Kury F, Schneeberger C, Sliutz G, Kubista E, Salzer H, Medl M, et al. Determination of HER-2/neu amplification and expression in tumor tissue and cultured cells using a simple, phenol free method for nucleic acid isolation. Oncogene. 1990;5(9):1403-8.
Wang B, Tedder ME, Perez CE, Wang G, de Jongh Curry AL, To F, et al. Structural and biomechanical characterizations of porcine myocardial extracellular matrix. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine. 2012;23(8):1835-47.
Nakayama KH, Batchelder CA, Lee CI, Tarantal AF. Decellularized rhesus monkey kidney as a three-dimensional scaffold for renal tissue engineering. Tissue Engineering Part A. 2010;16(7):2207-16.
Du L, Wu X, Pang K, Yang Y. Histological evaluation and biomechanical characterisation of an acellular porcine cornea scaffold. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2010:bjo. 2008.142539.
Funamoto S, Nam K, Kimura T, Murakoshi A, Hashimoto Y, Niwaya K, et al. The use of high-hydrostatic pressure treatment to decellularize blood vessels. Biomaterials. 2010;31(13):3590-5.
Keane TJ, Swinehart IT, Badylak SF. Methods of tissue decellularization used for preparation of biologic scaffolds and in vivo relevance. Methods. 2015;84:25-34.
Deeken C, White A, Bachman S, Ramshaw B, Cleveland D, Loy T, et al. Method of preparing a decellularized porcine tendon using tributyl phosphate. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials. 2011;96(2):199-206.
Ott HC, Clippinger B, Conrad C, Schuetz C, Pomerantseva I, Ikonomou L, et al. Regeneration and orthotopic transplantation of a bioartificial lung. Nature medicine. 2010;16(8):927-33.
Krejčí J. Interaction of mixture of anionic surfactants with collagen. International journal of cosmetic science. 2007;29(2):121-9.
Grefrath SP, Reynolds JA. The molecular weight of the major glycoprotein from the human erythrocyte membrane. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1974;71(10):3913-6.
Elder BD, Kim DH, Athanasiou KA. Developing an articular cartilage decellularization process toward facet joint cartilage replacement. Neurosurgery. 2010;66(4):722-7; discussion 7.
Hudson TW, Zawko S, Deister C, Lundy S, Hu CY, Lee K, et al. Optimized acellular nerve graft is immunologically tolerated and supports regeneration. Tissue engineering. 2004;10(11-12):1641-51.
Mallik AS, Fichter MA, Rieder S, Bilic G, Stergioula S, Henke J, et al. Fetoscopic closure of punctured fetal membranes with acellular human amnion plugs in a rabbit model. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2007;110(5):1121-9.
Rieder E, Kasimir M-T, Silberhumer G, Seebacher G, Wolner E, Simon P, et al. Decellularization protocols of porcine heart valves differ importantly in efficiency of cell removal and susceptibility of the matrix to recellularization with human vascular cells. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. 2004;127(2):399-405.
Ketchedjian A, Jones AL, Krueger P, Robinson E, Crouch K, Wolfinbarger L, et al. Recellularization of decellularized allograft scaffolds in ovine great vessel reconstructions. The Annals of thoracic surgery. 2005;79(3):888-96.
Price AP, England KA, Matson AM, Blazar BR, Panoskaltsis-Mortari A. Development of a decellularized lung bioreactor system for bioengineering the lung: the matrix reloaded. Tissue engineering Part A. 2010;16(8):2581-91.
Yang M, Chen CZ, Wang XN, Zhu YB, Gu YJ. Favorable effects of the detergent and enzyme extraction method for preparing decellularized bovine pericardium scaffold for tissue engineered heart valves. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials. 2009;91(1):354-61.
Conconi MT, De Coppi P, Bellini S, Zara G, Sabatti M, Marzaro M, et al. Homologous muscle acellular matrix seeded with autologous myoblasts as a tissue-engineering approach to abdominal wall-defect repair. Biomaterials. 2005;26(15):2567-74.
Seddon AM, Curnow P, Booth PJ. Membrane proteins, lipids and detergents: not just a soap opera. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Biomembranes. 2004;1666(1):105-17.
Baptista PM, Vyas D, Soker S. Liver Regeneration and Bioengineering-The Emergence of Whole Organ Scaffolds: INTECH Open Access Publisher; 2012.
Baptista PM, Orlando G, Mirmalek-Sani S-H, Siddiqui M, Atala A, Soker S, editors. Whole organ decellularization-a tool for bioscaffold fabrication and organ bioengineering. 2009 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society; 2009: IEEE.
Baptista PM, Siddiqui MM, Lozier G, Rodriguez SR, Atala A, Soker S. The use of whole organ decellularization for the generation of a vascularized liver organoid. Hepatology. 2011;53(2):604-17.
Mendoza-Novelo B, Avila EE, Cauich-Rodríguez JV, Jorge-Herrero E, Rojo FJ, Guinea GV, et al. Decellularization of pericardial tissue and its impact on tensile viscoelasticity and glycosaminoglycan content. Acta biomaterialia. 2011;7(3):1241-8.
Song JJ, Kim SS, Liu Z, Madsen JC, Mathisen DJ, Vacanti JP, et al. Enhanced in vivo function of bioartificial lungs in rats. The Annals of thoracic surgery. 2011;92(3):998-1006.
Jensen T, Roszell B, Zang F, Girard E, Matson A, Thrall R, et al. A rapid lung de-cellularization protocol supports embryonic stem cell differentiation in vitro and following implantation. Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods. 2012;18(8):632-46.
Neel EAA, Chrzanowski W, Salih VM, Kim H-W, Knowles JC. Tissue engineering in dentistry. Journal of dentistry. 2014;42(8):915-28.
Kolker AR, Brown DJ, Redstone JS, Scarpinato VM, Wallack MK. Multilayer reconstruction of abdominal wall defects with acellular dermal allograft (AlloDerm) and component separation. Annals of plastic surgery. 2005;55(1):36-42.
Grauss RW, Hazekamp MG, van Vliet S, Gittenberger-de Groot AC, DeRuiter MC. Decellularization of rat aortic valve allografts reduces leaflet destruction and extracellular matrix remodeling. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003;126(6):2003-10.
Grauss RW, Hazekamp MG, Oppenhuizen F, van Munsteren CJ, Gittenberger-de Groot AC, DeRuiter MC. Histological evaluation of decellularised porcine aortic valves: matrix changes due to different decellularisation methods. European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery. 2005;27(4):566-71.
Bader A, Steinhoff G, Strobl K, Schilling T, Brandes G, Mertsching H, et al. Engineering of human vascular aortic tissue based on a xenogeneic starter matrix. Transplantation. 2000;70(1):7-14.
Cebotari S, Tudorache I, Jaekel T, Hilfiker A, Dorfman S, Ternes W, et al. Detergent decellularization of heart valves for tissue engineering: toxicological effects of residual detergents on human endothelial cells. Artificial organs. 2010;34(3):206-10.
Feil G, Christ-Adler M, Maurer S, Corvin S, Rennekampff H-O, Krug J, et al. Investigations of urothelial cells seeded on commercially available small intestine submucosa. European urology. 2006;50(6):1330-7.
Petersen TH, Calle EA, Zhao L, Lee EJ, Gui L, Raredon MB, et al. Tissue-engineered lungs for in vivo implantation. Science. 2010;329(5991):538-41.
Gui L, Chan SA, Breuer CK, Niklason LE. Novel utilization of serum in tissue decellularization. Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods. 2009;16(2):173-84.
Schenke-Layland K, Vasilevski O, Opitz F, König K, Riemann I, Halbhuber K, et al. Impact of decellularization of xenogeneic tissue on extracellular matrix integrity for tissue engineering of heart valves. Journal of structural biology. 2003;143(3):201-8.
Moore R, Madara J, MacLeod R. Enterocytes adhere preferentially to collagen IV in a differentially regulated divalent cation-dependent manner. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 1994;266(6):G1099-G107.
Gailit J, Ruoslahti E. Regulation of the fibronectin receptor affinity by divalent cations. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1988;263(26):12927-32.
Klebe RJ. Cell Attachment to cllagen: The requirement for energy. Journal of cellular physiology. 1975;86(2):231-6.
Lehr EJ, Rayat GR, Chiu B, Churchill T, McGann LE, Coe JY, et al. Decellularization reduces immunogenicity of sheep pulmonary artery vascular patches. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. 2011;141(4):1056-62.
Yang B, Zhang Y, Zhou L, Sun Z, Zheng J, Chen Y, et al. Development of a porcine bladder acellular matrix with well-preserved extracellular bioactive factors for tissue engineering. Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods. 2010;16(5):1201-11.
Meyer SR, Chiu B, Churchill TA, Zhu L, Lakey JR, Ross DB. Comparison of aortic valve allograft decellularization techniques in the rat. Journal of biomedical materials research Part A. 2006;79(2):254-62.
Hopkinson A, Shanmuganathan VA, Gray T, Yeung AM, Lowe J, James DK, et al. Optimization of amniotic membrane (AM) denuding for tissue engineering. Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods. 2008;14(4):371-81.
Atala A. Tissue engineering, stem cells and cloning: current concepts and changing trends. Expert opinion on biological therapy. 2005;5(7):879-92.
Gouk SS, Lim TM, Teoh SH, Sun WQ. Alterations of human acellular tissue matrix by gamma irradiation: histology, biomechanical property, stability, in vitro cell repopulation, and remodeling. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials. 2008;84(1):205-17.
Nagata S, Hanayama R, Kawane K. Autoimmunity and the clearance of dead cells. Cell. 2010;140(5):619-30.
Kakkar R, Suruchi, Grover R. Theoretical study of molecular recognition by Hoechst 33258 derivatives. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics. 2005;23(1):37-47.
Conklin B, Richter E, Kreutziger K, Zhong D-S, Chen C. Development and evaluation of a novel decellularized vascular xenograft. Medical engineering & physics. 2002;24(3):173-83.
Quintana JR, Lipanov AA, Dickerson RE. Low-temperature crystallographic analyses of the binding of Hoechst 33258 to the double-helical DNA dodecamer CGCGAATTCGCG. Biochemistry. 1991;30(42):10294-306.
Ahn SJ, Costa J, Emanuel JR. PicoGreen quantitation of DNA: effective evaluation of samples pre-or psost-PCR. Nucleic acids research. 1996;24(13):2623-5.
Lotfi B, Mehranjani MS, Mahdiyeh M. Simultaneous effect of green tea catechin and bisphenol A on differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblast in vitro. Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (J Kermanshah Univ Med Sci). 2014;18(9):498-508.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.