Factors and Prevalence of Depression in Students at Iran’s Urmia University of Medical Sciences

Hamid Reza Khalkhali, Rasool Gharaaghaji, Mousa Ghelichi Ghojogh, Rohollah Valizadeh

Abstract

Background: Depression is characterized by decreased tendency to work, reduced pleasure from work, increased or decreased weight, increased or decreased appetite, insomnia or narcolepsy, irritability, fatigue, loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness, feelings of guilt, reduced ability to concentrate and think, and thoughts of suicide or actual suicide attempts. In this 2016 study, we examined the factors and prevalence of depression in students at Urmia University of Medical Sciences in Urmia, Iran.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 students. Data were collected through the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II): a 21- item standard questionnaire in multiple-choice format to evaluate depression. The questionnaires were distributed randomly by trained students over a period of 5 months. Data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 19 software and by descriptive statistics, independent t-tests, logistic regression models, and the chi-squared test.

Results: The mean BDI score was 14.67 ± 11.30. Of the study population, 278 (69.8%) were men and 120 (30.2%) were women. In terms of depression, 40.2% of the students were in the normal range and had no depression, 23.6% were slightly depressed, and 18.3% were partially depressed. Also, 6.03% of students had severe depression, and 3.51% of students had very severe depression. No statistically signi cant relationship was observed between depression and sex (P = 0.11). However, signi cant relationships were observed between depression and education level (P = 0.001), smoking history (P = 0.001), and age (P = 0.023). P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically signi cant.

Conclusion: The prevalence of different degrees of depression in the plurality of students at Urmia University of Medical Sciences necessitates the development and institution of psychological training classes.

Keywords

Beck Questionnaire, Depression, Medical Students, Urmia

Full Text:

PDF

References

Benazzi F. Various Forms of Depression. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. 2006; 8(2):151-161.

Wells, K.B., et al., The functioning and well-being of depressed patients. Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Jama, 1989. 262(7): p. 914-9.

Katon, W.J., Clinical and health services relationships between major depression, depressive symptoms, and general medical illness. Biol Psychiatry, 2003. 54(3): p. 216-26.

Ischaki, E. and C. Gratziou, Smoking and depression: Is smoking cessation effective? There Adv Respir Dis, 2009. 3(1): p. 31-8.

Aubin, H.J., S. Tilikete, and D. Barrucand, [Depression and smoking]. Encephala, 1996. 22(1): p. 17-22.

Akiskal H. Mood disorder. In: Kaplan HI.; Sadock BJ. Comprehensive text book of psychiatry: From Williams &Wilkins. Baltimore: USA, 7th ed, 2001.Vol 1, 1284-431.

Kaplan H, Sadock B. [Kaplan and Sadock's Synopsis of psychiatry: behavioral science, clinical psychiatry]. Pourafkari N (translator). 9th ed. Tehran: Shahr ab, 2007:534- 88.

Sharifi KH, Souki Z, Khademi Z, Hosseinian M, Tagharobi Z. Prevalence of depression and its contributing factors among Kashan Medical University students. feys 2001; 4(16):54-8.

Hadavi M, Rostami N. Depression and its effective factors among the students of Rafsanjan nursing, midwifery and paramedical faculty-2012. Community Health Journal. 2012 Oct 15; 6(3):58-65.

Mortazavi T. and et al. Study of effective factors on depression, perceived stress and perceived social support and their relationship among students living in dormitories of shahid beheshti University of medical sciences. Journal of Ilam University of medical sciences.2013; 21(4):91-106.

American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic & Statistical manual of mental disorders (4th Ed.).Washington, DC.

Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown G.K. Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory – II. The Psychological Corporation. Harcourt Brace & Company San Antonio. 1996

Stefan-Dabson K, Mohammadkhani P, Massah-Choulabi O. Psychometrics characteristic of Beck Depression Inventory-II in patients with magor depressive disorder. Journal of rehabilitation. 2007 Jun 15; 8:82-0.

Rostamzadeh Z, Khalilzadeh R. The prevalence of depression in high schools of Urmia. Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Urmia University of Medical Sciences. 2007; 5(2):12-8.

Rabiepoor S, Valizadeh R, Barjasteh S. Study of Menstrual Attitudes and Knowledge among Postmenarcheal Students, in Urmia, North West of Iran. Int J Pediatr 2017; 5(5): 4991-5001.

Valizadeh R, Taymoori P, Yousefi F, Rahimi L, Ghaderi N. The Effect of Puberty Health Education based on Health Belief Model on Health Behaviors and Preventive among Teen Boys in Marivan, North West of Iran. Int J Pediatr 2016; 4(5): 3271-81.

Ildarabady e, Firouzkouhi mr, mazloom s, navinean a. Prevalence of depression among students of Zabol Medical School, 2002. Journal of Shahrekord Uuniversity of Medical Sciences. 2004; 6(2):15-21.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.